Carlos Ghosn is a celebrity in the automobile industry because of his company turnaround stories which almost seem like fairy tales. Carlos Ghosn is currently in the news for fleeing Japan, where he is facing four criminal charges. While he is currently a wanted fugitive, the story of how he made Nissan and Renault forces to be reckoned with is worthwhile.
The Renault and Nissan alliance
When Renault was suffering from chronic underperforming sales and Nissan was nearly bankrupt, Carlos Ghosn proposed an alliance between the two automaker giants, where Renault purchased a 36.8 % stake in Nissan. Carlos Ghosn was later appointed Chief Operating Officer (COO) of both Nissan and Renault. He laid out a three year revival plan for Nissan, which was in a consolidated debt of $ 20 billion. The Nissan revival plan, announced in 1999, promised a return to profitability in the year 2000 and a profit margin over 4.5% in the year 2002 along with a reduction in 50 % of the debt by 2002.
Carlos Ghosn also promised to resign from his position if his goals were not met. Once the plan was announced, Ghosn announced major changes at Nissan, which included downsizing, letting go of 21,000 employees, which accounted for 14 % of the total workforce, shutting down multiple manufacturing plants in Japan and auctioning the aerospace unit. Other industry experts laughed at the plan and Carlos Ghosn’s decision earned him the nickname ‘Le Cost Killer.’
Japan has a hierarchy of age and seniority based promotion. At the time, Nissan had a lifetime employment policy, leading to a complacency which came with the job. Carlos Ghosn changed the employment policy from being a guarantee to a goal which needed to be achieved. Carlos Ghosn also proposed the abolishment of the Keiretsu system which was undermining Nissan’s performance. Keiretsu is an old Japanese concept of cooperation and alliances. Companies form interlocking interests and take up shareholdings. It is an unofficial and an informal form of business alliance which had long held dominance over the Japanese economy. Ghosn’s proposal to abolish this system did not sit well with the Japanese public, caused outrage and earned him the name ‘Keiretsu Killer.’
Upon achieving his targets, Ghosn became an overnight hero in Japan, where outsiders, often referred to as ‘Gaijin,’ find it hard to gain recognition. He was even depicted as a superhero in a Japanese comic book.
After bringing Nissan from the brink of bankruptcy to the second best automobile maker in Japan behind Toyota, Ghosn announced his plan to unveil the Nissan Leaf in 2010. The Nissan Leaf was dubbed as the world’s first affordable zero emission car.
The Renault-Nissan alliance is the leader of the electric vehicle segment in the world, beating Elon Musk’s Tesla. As of 2017, the alliance sold double the number of cars as Tesla.
Arrest and downfall
By 2018, many in Japan and outside were of the opinion Ghosn’s income from both Renault and Nissan was too high. A whistleblower, who was a close aide of Carlos Ghosn, said they had information Carlos Ghosn was instructing his close aide and board member Greg Kelly to create two salary accounts for Ghosn. One account held money which would be paid every fiscal year to Ghosn and the other account would hold a pot which was designated to be paid out to Carlos Ghosn after his exit from Nissan. Nissan went to the authorities with this information and it was found Carlos Ghosn was under reporting his income filings. Following this, Carlos Ghosn was arrested at the Tokyo Airport.
Following the arrest, Ghosn was sent to a detention center and had no contact with anyone except his Japanese lawyer, the Lebanese embassy and the French embassy. He alleged he was mistreated as he is a foreigner.
Carlos Ghosn recently made headlines when he fled from Japan and went to Lebanon via Turkey. Lebanon currently has no extradition treaty with Japan in place, meaning Japan currently has no way to prosecute him. Carlos Ghosn made a statement that he would disclose everything to the media in the coming months.
Read about the rise of Carlos Ghosn here: Carlos Ghosn – The Rise Of A Titan Of Automobile Industry
5 Successful Indian Startups Founded By Women
The workplace has undergone massive changes in the last century. At the turn of the Industrial Revolution, any workplace was dominated by men while the women were delegated to run the homes. However, with the advent of the internet and new and exciting technologies, workplaces have undergone a tectonic shift. Women are no longer comfortable staying at home and are instead opting to lead teams and organisations. As every year passes, we get closer to true gender equality, women have proven time and again that they are equally capable to get the job done if not better in some instances. Names like Wolfe Herd (Bumble founder,) Kylie Jenner (Kylie Cosmetics founder,) Masaba Gupta (Masaba clothing label founder) are just some of the names who are known for leading world famous brands with their unique style of leadership.
As the world celebrates International Women’s Day, we bring to you five women founders who run world famous and successful startups.
1) Upasana Taku-MobiKwik
If you are an Indian and are used to doing online shopping, more often than not at the time of payment, you would be directed to a payment gateway. One of these gateways would normally be MobiKwik. The startup is a well known name in the digital payments and digital wallet space. MobiKwik was founded by Upasana Taku in 2009, who prior to founding MobiKwik used to work with PayPal. Today Upasana Taku is also in charge of bank partnerships, business operations, and talent acquisition at MobiKwik.
2) Richa Kar-Zivame
An enthusiastic MBA student, Richa Kar, developed an online lingerie shopping platform in the year 2011. Currently, Zivame is India’s leading online lingerie store with a valuation of more than $ 100 million. The brilliant idea for her own lingerie business came to light when Richa tracked Victoria’s Secret’s sales, who was one of her clients when she was working at SAP. She observed the lingerie sales figures reached peaks overseas but, Indian women were not provided with the similar innerwear. While Richa was studying the Indian lingerie market, she realized the social embarrassment in India surrounding lingerie shopping. Today Richa Kar could be credited with destigmatising the uneasiness surrounding lingerie shopping in India.
3) Falguna Nayar-Nykaa
After a long stint as an investment banker, Falguni Nayar founded Nykaa.com in the year 2013. An online one stop shop for beauty products from Indian and international brands, Nykaa changed the world of online shopping. Who would have ever thought buying makeup online would be so easy? Falguni Nayar proved many critics wrong and created a brand new place for people who love experimenting with styles, designs and colors.
ALSO READ: Zivame: Founding Story
4) Sabina Chopra-Yatra.com
Yatra.com is a popular Indian website for making flight and hotel bookings. Sabina Chopra was instrumental in identifying the potential for travel commerce in India and people moving towards cheaper or easier travel. By the time, people started looking to make bookings, Sabina made sure Yatra.com was already in place. Sabina was the former Head of India Operations of eBookers, which is also an online travel company based in Europe. Along with this, she was also working with Japan Airlines which further adds to her experience in the travel industry.
5) Rashmi Sinha-SlideShare
SlideShare allows people to upload and access their presentations online. While this feature is presently available everywhere, SlideShare was one of the first players in making this happen. Rashmi Sinha was one of the founders of the presentation sharing platform SlideShare. The company became so successful that in 2012, LinkedIn acquired the company for an amount of $100 million.
Let us know in the comments if you know any other wonderful women who have become leaders of their right or have started up and are doing extraordinary things. We at Startup Stories wish a wonderful Women’s Day to all the women in the world who are changemakers.
Why Are Ads On Digital Media Failing To Reach The Right Audience?
If you are a regular user of social media platforms and also a fan of consuming content on the digital medium, then there is a very high likelihood that you have seen ads on pages you are reading or watching something. There would be times when you have been targeted by an ad which feels like it was wrongly targeted at you. Imagine if you are a vegetarian by choice and while browsing online, if you are targeted by a food delivery app which shows ads about chicken dishes. The ad would only serve to spoil the mood of the online user instead of serving its actual purpose which is to push the user to buy a chicken dish.
These wrongly targeted ads might be the side effects of performance marketing or a weak brand marketing. Performance marketing means advertising programs where advertisers pay only when a specific action occurs. These actions can include a generated lead, a sale, a click, and more. Inshort, performance marketing is used to create highly targeted ads for a very specific target audience at a low cost. Performance marketing usually means high volume for a very specific cost.
Brand marketers on the other hand believe in narrowly defining target audiences but end up spending a lot of money on ad placements. Gautam Mehra, CEO, Dentsu Programmatic India & CDO, Dentsu International Asia Pacific said, “You’ve defined a persona, you know the emotions you want to elicit, but then you buy a YouTube masthead and CricInfo sponsorships because IPL is up. If brand advertisers look at audience-based buys more deeply than just placements, you will see more relevant ads (sic.)”
Performance marketing is more of a sales function rather than a marketing function and is about meeting the cost of acquisition. This is a reason why budgets are usually high for performance marketing. Mehra goes on to add, “the fact is that an engineer can out-beat FMCGs on performance marketing. Advertisers who have cracked this are spending 10x and are on an ‘always on’ mode (unlike time-bound brand campaigns.)”
There is always the case of supply and demand, with the supply usually exceeding the demand on digital platforms. Ultimately, it boils down to the choice between no ad versus low relevance ad and it is quite easy to guess that having a low relevance ad is better.
Arvind R. P., Director – Marketing and Communications at McDonald’s India (West and South,) said “McDonalds’ for instance, has seen its share of spends on digital grow from 20% levels a couple of years back to over 40% at present. Outcomes of this journey have been encouraging, proven by our media-mix-modelling and other key metrics. We have seen best results from an optimal mix of Television plus digital (sic.)” Moreover, Arvind also believes performance marketing only approach could turn out to be more suited to short term, versus a more consistent full funnel effort. The latter ensures adequate emphasis on building consideration, as well as growing transactions. Arvind feels digital is a complex medium which needs investment in the right talent who could use the right tools. Brands which underestimate the need for the investment are often disappointed from the return on investment from the digital medium.
With the constantly changing consumer dynamics marketers are now shifting to unscripted marketing which frankly needs more insights into the consumer mindset. The lack of marketers to do the proper research is why digital medium is plagued with irrelevant ads.
From Unicorn To Bankruptcy; Knotel Bears The Brunt Of COVID-19 Pandemic
It is no secret that in the fast paced world of startups, fortunes can change at the snap of fingers. Sometimes startups tend to scale so quickly that they become unicorns and sometimes the fortunes reverse so quickly that a startup can immediately go bankrupt from being a unicorn. The latter was the case for an American property technology startup Knotel, who are now bankrupt due to the disruptions by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Knotel is a property technology company quite similar to WeWork. Knotel designed, built and ran custom headquarters for companies which It manages the spaces with ‘flexible’ terms. Knotel does a mix of direct leases and revenue sharing deals. Knotel marketed its offering as ‘headquarters as a service’ or a flexible office space which could be customized for each tenant while also growing or shrinking as needed. For the revenue-share agreements, Knotel solicits clients, builds out offices, and manages properties, and shares the rent paid to it by the client with the landlord. This model is the majority revenue generator for Knotel.
In March 2020, just before the COVID-19 pandemic unleashed its economic destruction on the world, Knotel was valued at $ 1.6 billion. What is even more interesting is Knotel raised $ 400 million in Series C funding in August 2019 which led to its unicorn status. However, with the COVId-19 pandemic and its consequent lockdowns and curfews by various governments across the world, startups and businesses shifted to a remote working model. This in turn led to startups pulling out of Knotel properties to cut down on working costs.
In late March 2020, according to Forbes, Knotel laid off 30% of its workforce and furloughed another 20%, due to the impact of the coronavirus. It was at this point that Knotel was valued at $ 1.6 billion. The company had started the year with about 500 employees. By the third week of March,Knotel had a headcount of 400. With the cuts, about 200 employees remained with the other 200 having either lost their jobs or on unpaid leave, according to Forbes.
In 2021, Knotel filed for bankruptcy and agreed to sell its assets to Newmark, one of their investors for a total of $ 70 million dollars. As work culture is still undergoing changes as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic and with many companies realising that remote work model saves costs and improves work efficiency, the flexible workspace sector would continue to face challenges. Knotel is just the tip of the iceberg and is a warning call for the flexible working spaces industry.
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